For receiving favorable influence it is necessary to approach water having warmed as in chilled water instead of warming there is still a bigger cooling. The main thing at a hardening - water temperature, but not the duration of procedure. Steadily adhere to the rule: the water is colder, the well there has to be time of its contact with a body.
For a hardening use a shower with an average force of a stream - in the form of a fan or a rain. At the beginning water temperature makes 30-35 °C, duration - no more than 1 min. Then water temperature is reduced gradually, and time of reception of a shower is increased till 2 min. Procedure has to come to an end surely with vigorous grinding of a body with a towel then, as a rule, there is a vigorous mood.
Water at douche pours out from a vessel or the rubber hose attached to a water supply system. And here the principle of gradualness is necessary. Water of temperature about 30 °C is applied to the first douches. Further temperature decreases to 15 °C and below. Procedure duration with the subsequent grinding of a body makes 3 - 4 min.
Adhere to a certain sequence. At first rub off water the head, a neck, hands, a breast, a back, wipe them dry and pound to a redness a towel. After that the same is made from a stupnyama, shins, hips. Duration of all procedure, including and grinding of a body which partially replaces self-massage, should not exceed 5 min.
It is better for elderly people to limit time of stay in water. Be guided by a condition of the health, weather conditions. Do not allow emergence of a fever. The cooled skin does not give due reaction any more, and instead of reddening and warming there is still a bigger cooling. In a word, we recommend to watch the health carefully. Otherwise at long bathing there can occur the excessive irritation of nervous system, the general weakness, etc.
Strong impact on an organism is made by sea bathings. Their special value consists that there is a combination of thermal irritation to the mechanical - blows of waves. The raised content in sea water of the dissolved salts, first of all cooking, causes chemical irritation of skin.
At a hardening of children mothers and fathers should consider first of all anatomo-physiological features of an organism of the child, imperfection of its thermoregulatory device. The less child, the this feature is expressed more sharply. The children's organism owing to insufficient development of nervous system badly adapts to changes of ambient temperature. At them there comes violation of thermal balance rather.
Douche is characterized by action of low water temperature, small pressure of the stream falling on a body surface. It sharply strengthens effect of irritation therefore douches are contraindicated to people with hypererethism and elderly.
In winter time of small children take out on air, since 2-3-nedelnoto age: at first 2, and then 3 times a day. Aged about one month stay would be allowed at a temperature not below -10 °C in the open air, and for more senior children not below -15 °C during walks the child's face has to be open.
At this age it is possible to use the general rubdowns with decrease in water temperature to 24oC, the general douches of temperature to 24-28oC. From 1,5 years it is possible to apply a shower which makes stronger impact, than douche as, except water temperature, joins also mechanical influence here. Duration of procedure is up to 1,5 min.; water temperature and its decrease - as at the general douche. The babies having ekssudativno-catarrhal diathesis for a hardening can use grass bathtubs "Cheburashka": take mix of herbs of a marjoram, a train, coltsfoot, calendula, violet on 40-50 g, fill in 3-4 l of boiled water, draw 2-3 h, filter and pour out in a bathtub with warm water 35-36oC. At first the child is in water of 1-2 min., gradually duration of stay increase till 8-10 min., at the same time reducing water temperature to 24-28oC, and to more tempered children even to 15oC. Such bathtubs apply in 1-2 days.
Mattress on which the child sleeps, it is necessary to take out from the warm room just before laying of the child. Watch closely that did not come both excessive cooling, and overheating of the child.